If you have the game fully patched (TA 2.02) you can see total research output and research income from treaties at the top of the research screen. This is empire-wide total. On the same screen, if you right click on a tech, it will give you a box telling what the tech unlocks, what passive bonuses it gives, and the cost for researching it. Keep in mind that the cost will change during the game based on how many techs you have already researched.
For planetary improvements, it is possible to determine how many hammers it takes by simple trial and error. For example, stock markets cost 120 and starports cost 20. Perhaps some helpful soul will wander past and point you toward Galactopedia.
Beakers are the output of labs and contribute to the research output of your empire. The total research output number I told you about is the sum of the beakers all your planets are putting out. since research is empire-wide, the output of individual planets is not really important, only the total.
Hammers and shields are both produced by factory-type buildings and are used to build buildings and ships, respectively. The buildings can be a bit challenging to determine exactly how many points you need - especially upgrades, as the cost is determined partially by how many hammers you put into building the structure you are upgrading. It is entirely possible to upgrade two of the same building into two of the same building (ex. basic factory to advanced factory) and have it cost a different amount to upgrade them.
Ships are far easier. In the shipyard screen - or in the planetary starport build screen - you can see the number of shields needed to produce the selected ship in the bottom right corner of the screen with the other stats for the ship.
In the case of both hammers and shields, there is no need to calculate the total output of your empire, as both are used only on the planet that makes them. If you must, you can get a rough estimate by looking at the timeline tab of the civ manager screen. Social production is tracked on a separate graphs, but you will need to subtract that from the manufacturing graph number to find the total military output.