25% in DL & DA, 1/5th (20%) in TA [at last check on TA numbers].
EDIT: As a note, 1/4 is taken in all versions from the first, but in TA only 1/5 is given to the second. I felt the original post might have implied less was taken, as well-which is not the case. (Also modified 16.67% to 20% per game experience.)
It adds up oddly because it takes from both social and military to add to research (or vice versa), and truncates before multiplying bonuses, IIRC, as well as truncating after bonuses. Not to mention it takes base (unbonused) production. But the net effect is it's approximately 1/4th [base] in DL/DA and approximately 1/6th [base] in TA.
This can show up as much less, for instance, if you have say a 100% military bonus and a mere 20% research bonus, your 100% military funded, research-focused planet would only be producing 20% of your current military output (as an example, 100 industry, 200 with bonus, 75 before bonus when focused on research, gives 150 with bonus, while research gets the 25 and then is multiplied by 1.2 for a total of 30) while being somewhat less than 1/6th and something more than 1/7th of your peak military output.
If you're playing TA, those numbers are, not quite meaningless, but, well, /less/, but I'm not quite ready to leap fully into TA myself, even though I have it, so my apologies for applying DA mechanics to it.
I don't know how to answer your other question because I'm not sure exactly what you're asking. Have you tried the colony management screen in the civilization manager?