An infinite universe...
This has an interesting implication not many people think about. It means anything that can happen, will happen, has happened and will keep happening over and over and over.
I'll try and illustrate this with an example.
Say we have an infinite universe with only two types of particiles. X and O. For sanity sake, let's say these particiles only appear in groups of 2.
With those rules you have a limited amount of possible configurations.
To be exact: XX, OX, OO.
In this simplified example there's a very limited number of configurations matter can take and you wouldn't have to travel very far to see a reassurance. In our own universe matter can take up an unthinkable amount of configurations but the number is finite.
If you throw in infinity into the mix then no matter how small the odds are, it WILL happen again. And again, and again.
It's kind of a bizarre idea but in an infinite universe I am typing this an infinite amount of times and an infinite amount of you are reading it after I post it.In an infinite universe a money hitting random keys really DID type all the sonnets of Shakespeare more than once.
The philosophical problem that arises from this is a nasty one: which version of you is truly you?
The one that exists at this very time & place. So even if there would exist a 100% perfect copy of me, it won't be able to inhabitate my time & space, because that spot is already taken by me
Though I agree on your generell assessment, an infinite universe holds infinite possibilites (who said "inifinite diversity in infinite combinations"?^^). Nevertheless, it is still highly unlikely that perfect copies will ever meet each other given the insane amount of quantum possibility state our bodies do possess. If we take the Planck Length as smallest meter, the tip of a human finger holds 10^99 such different places; which is more than the observable universe has centimeters. So theoretically, if we had a microscope/telescope both with infinite ability to zoom, we oculd behold 100 trillion times more different occurrences in your finger-tip (lest say in your complete body) than centimeter in the whole observable universe.
Finally, because the nature of the universe is changing, it is very likely that there will be a time when bodies like ours cannot form anymore naturally, except perhaps through spontane quantum fluctuation.
You may find this link interesting https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boltzmann_brain
Some scientists believe that if you keep traveling in the same direction you'll eventually end up on the 'other' side of the universe. Kind of how pacman travels from one side of the game field to the other. The reason for this is because space/time can curve around. So even if you think you're traveling in a straight line you're still following a curve.
I think I remember from a recent discussion that the curvature of space isn't enough for it to form a sphere, it's more or less bend but "open" at the sides. But I might be wrong on this.
But even if it is, you won't be able to complete your journey, because the expansion of space will cause your distances to become ever greater (and as there is already a strentching in speed greater than c you cannot keep up with it). It's like a balloon where upon a snail crawls around while you constantly blow it up.
It's possible, but like you said, unprovable in the context of the universe. But there's many infinites you deal with on a daily basis. Just count from one to two. There's actually an infinite amount of numbers between those numbers. Infinity is a real thing and to make things even more complicated infinities come in different sizes.
There's an infinite amount of numbers between 1 and 2. But, there's also an infinite amount of numbers between 1 and 3, a bigger infinity.
Yeah, well to define or try to understand infinity via mathematics is somewhat understandable (at least for me) but to incorporate that into our very material world just bursts my mind^^
You come to this infinity by a theoretical expression of making numbers ever smaller, however, such an undertaking is impossible in a material reality. If Quantum Loop Cosmology proofs to be correct, the Planck Meter is the smallest possible squale with space itself "bound by it". And because of this, no more infinite shrinking or dimensional collapsing of black holes, thus, also no informational loss.
The truth is no one knows what the universe was like before the big bang because all our theories break down and spout of gibberish if we try to calculate it.
Yeah, they can calculate really close to it to times when all basic physical forces were still conjoined (and gravity was indeed violently repulsive!) but it's somewhat more interesting for me to find or observe factual evidence. Hitherto, the CBR was the earliest thing but now, scientists are so excited about the proof of gravity waves, because exactly these could travel unhindered the early, still opaque universe, so detecting the primordial ones will give alot of new insights into the Big Bang Theory itself.
The amount of matter/energy in the universe hasn't changed since the big bang.
Perhaps there is some loss in Black Holes^^
Three. One particles falls into the black hole. This can be the particle or anti-particle
According to Hawkings work, it has to be always the anti-particle, otherwise the BH wouldn't loose mass but acquire it. Or, if there is a random, thus equal distribution of occurrences of particle/anti-particle which fall in, then these would cancel out and the BH wouldn't change in mass at all.
I'm at a loss to explain why it's always the anti-particle. I've tried to get an explanation on this from several theoretical scientists but it was far beyond my understanding^^ :shrug: but Hawkings got the Nobel-prize on this very paper so that should be correct.
Let me just add that both Stellar & Supermassive BH are still acquiring more mass solely from the acretion of the CBR than they loose via Hawkings Radiation (so, they are less hot/bright than the vacuum of space itself) so there's no way to measure this radiation at all.