In DA, there are about 6 "buttons" along the bottom of the screen when you are looking at the galaxy. The third one from the left is "domestic stats." Toggle that button and several choices appear as sliders that let you move taxes from 0 to 100%, production from 0 to 100%, and three other sliders that are called something like "Distribute Empire Production."
Those last three sliders are military, social, and research and always add up to 100%, such that moving one affects the others.
At the bottom is another slider that lets you allocate income to buying spies.
I presume there is something like this in TA, perhaps by other names.
My preferred style is all-factory, so I generally have my production allocation sliders set at 1-99-0. In the first dozen turns, though, I adjust the sliders to get exactly what research I want each turn. I generally do not begin buying spies until I have a good positive cash flow. Production I try to keep at 100% and I try to keep taxes just low enough to have 100% morale as long as I can.
The 6 buttons are (left to right) planet/ship, research, domestic stats, foreign stats, civilization manager, and shipyard. I spend a lot of time in the civilization manager using the colony list screen.