1) I can't say I'd prioritize any of those above the others. To my mind, they're all equally integral to building and maintaining a strong, stable society.
2) Probably somewhere in between. It's an unfortunate fact of life that war will always happen at some point, and it's necessary to be fully prepared at all times to follow any conflict through to the end, and with victory.
3) Most certainly the best infrastructure and quality of life. The better off its citizens, the better off the empire; the two are inextricably linked.
4) Again, to my mind, sustainability is the greatest use of resources. By creating a robust, flexible, and efficient infrastructure; it becomes a viable strategy to wear your opponents down and then strike when they no longer have sufficient capacity to defend.
5) Only to the extent that any presentation espousing the use of violence as a primary tool in resolving conflicts both foreign and domestic. Violence is a necessary tool in very particular circumstances, and all should be instructed in its proper application, but it should never be held in regard above other less destructive and wasteful methods.
6) I wouldn't say it's because I value the military, and I wouldn't go quite the same direction as the Spartans, but yes, the young would be instructed in combat. Nothing particularly overt though, mandatory martial arts training from the very beginning of school, as well as emphasis on situational awareness, creative thinking, and logical thought. All things of dual use in a civilized society and its military. My military would be voluntary only, but when my entire population has the skills to defend our worlds so long as they're provided equipment, then I don't have to worry about using my troops to garrison the worlds, do I?
7) I think democracy is essential, but I think lifetime terms for any office are unacceptable. Perhaps...10 years? Limit of 2 terms? The most important thing aren't really the terms, but rather preventing corruption. The most effective way to do that is to prevent the "buying" of politicians through campaign contributions and lobbying. By forcing all candidates to use an equally paltry sum for their campaigns and punishing those who spend more by disqualifying them and imprisoning them, as well as imprisoning those who gave them the additional funds for at least 10 years with no chance of early release; that particular type of bribery will be largely eliminated. Also, the incumbent officials should be barred from campaigning at all, save their participation in official public debates. Normally, an individual's finances and the like are their own business, but elected officials sacrifice that right in order that they serve the people properly. They and their families' finances will be continuously scrutinized and suspicious or unexplained monies will be thoroughly investigated and prosecuted.