As far as I know (meaning certainly in DA, unsure about TA) there is no explicit screen like this. However, if you choose to save ship designs to hard drive, these saved ships and the stock ship designs will show up in the tech descriptions.
This requires you to know at least one tech involved in building your ship, but it can be hull size, a specific weapon, etc. Highlight that tech, and all the saved ships using that tech will appear in the top right window on the tech screen, with a listing of the techs needed to build that ship under it. It will even warn you if you don't have sufficiently high miniaturization to build the ship.
Unfortunately, if a ship uses many different techs, it will just come up "x other techs needed".